What is Violence Against Women and Girls?

Domestic Violence and Abuse is a pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive or threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between those aged 16 or over who are or have been intimate partners or family members regardless of gender or sexuality. This can encompass, but is not limited to, psychological, physical, sexual, financial and emotional abuse. In extreme cases this includes murder. 

Stalking is repeated (that is on at least two occasions) harassment causing fear, alarm or distress. It can include threatening phone calls, texts or letters, damaging property, spying on and following the victim.

Forced Marriage is a marriage conducted without valid consent of one or both parties, where duress is a factor. 

Faith-based abuse is linked to faith or belief. This includes a belief in concepts of witchcraft and spirit possession, demons or the devil, the evil eye or djinns and dakini acting through children or leading them astray. 

Up-Skirting is the action of placing equipment such as a camera or mobile phone beneath a person’s clothing to take a voyeuristic photograph without their permission. 

Coercive and Controlling Behaviour is a range of acts designed to make a person subordinate and/or dependent by isolating them from sources of support, exploiting their resources and capacities for personal gain, depriving them of the means needed for independence, resistance and escape and regulating their everyday behaviour. Coercive behaviour is an act or a pattern of acts of assault, threats, humiliation and intimidation or other abuse that is used to harm, punish, or frighten their victim. 

Prostitution & Trafficking is when women and girls are forced (often involving violence), coerced or deceived to enter into prostitution and/or to keep them there. Trafficking involves the recruitment, transportation and exploitation of women and children for the purposes of prostitution and domestic servitude across international borders and within countries ('internal trafficking').

Sexual Exploitation relating to Modern Slavery is when victims may be forced into prostitution, pornography, or lap dancing for little or no pay. They may be deprived of their freedom of movement and subjected to threats and violence. 

Revenge Porn is the sharing of private, sexual materials, either photos or videos, of another person without their consent and with the purpose of causing embarrassment or distress. Sharing of these materials is usually carried out online. 

Cyber Flashing is the unsolicited sending of images or video recordings of one's genitals. 

Sexual Harassment is unwanted verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature. It can take place anywhere, including the workplace, schools, streets, public transport and social situations. It includes flashing, obscene and threatening calls, and online harassment. 

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is the complete or partial removal or alteration of external genitalia for non-medical reasons. It is mostly carried out on young girls at some time between infancy and the age of 15. Unlike male circumcision, which is legal in many countries, it is now illegal across much of the globe, and its extensive harmful health consequences are widely recognised. 

Sexual Exploitation is exploitative situations, contexts and relationships where someone receives ‘something’ (e.g. food, drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, affection, protection money) as a result of them performing, and/or another or others performing on them, sexual activities. 

Sexual Violence is sexual contact without consent, including rape. Perpetrators range from total strangers to relatives and intimate partners, but most are known in some way.